I. PREAMBLEWith your entry into law school you have begun the process of becoming a lawyer and consequently are bound by the appropriate standards of professional conduct. These standards are high, and serious sanctions can be imposed for failure to meet them. These Academic Regulations specify many of the expectations the Law School has concerning student behavior. You are responsible to know these regulations, but you should also bear in mind that such a catalogue of rules cannot be exhaustive. Thus, you should judge your conduct not only by these specifics but also the high standards of ethical behavior required by the profession.
II. JURIS DOCTOR (J.D.) DEGREE REQUIREMENTSThe Juris Doctor (J.D.) requires successful completion of at least eighty three (83) credit hours. Generally, the full-time program in the day division extends over three (3) academic years. The part-time program in the evening division extends over four (4) academic years. Full-time is defined as 12 to 16 credit hours during a day regular semester; part-time is defined as 8 to 12 credit hours during an evening regular semester.
No student in the day division may take fewer than 12 hours or more than 16 hours per semester without special permission. No student in the evening division may take fewer than 8 hours per semester, or more than 12 hours per semester, without special permission. In each case, permission must be sought and may be granted by the Dean or the Dean's delegate [in this instance, the Vice Dean] or the Registrar. To graduate, students must receive residence credit for 6 full-time semesters or 8 part-time semesters, or the equivalent. Additional credits earned in one academic year or summer session will not permit a student to take fewer than the minimum credit hours per semester thereafter.
Students are required to complete a total of 83 credits over 6 full-time or 8 part-time semesters. At least 64 of the 83 credits must be completed in classroom courses. Courses that count toward the 64 credit requirement include all first-year required courses, upper level required and elective courses, in-house clinics and their associated fieldwork (total of 5 credits) and externship seminars (usually 1 credit). Work for journals, independent studies, or externship fieldwork are not considered "courses." Thus the credits received for this work do not count toward the minimum 64 credits required to be taken in classroom courses. Such credits do, however, count toward the 83 credits required to graduate.
Full-time students must schedule classes principally between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Classes for first year day students may meet over five days a week. A student may not engage in employment for more than 20 hours per week in any semester in which the student is enrolled for more than 12 class credit hours.
The New York Court of Appeals requires that the course of study for the J.D. degree be completed no later than 60 months after a student has commenced law study at the law school or a law school from which the school has accepted transfer credit. Our requirements are designed to meet or exceed the requirements of the New York Court of Appeals, the American Bar Association, and the Association of American Law Schools. Thus any student seeking a waiver of the Law School's requirements should realize that such a waiver may violate one or more of the accreditors' rules. This could mean that the student would not be eligible for admission to practice law. Students are responsible for a thorough knowledge of the requirements for eligibility for practice in each jurisdiction in which they plan to apply for admission.
III. MASTER OF LAWS (LL.M.) DEGREE REQUIREMENTSThe Master of Laws requires successful completion of at least twenty four (24) credit hours in no fewer than two (2) semesters and no more than three (3) years, based on enrollment status. Full-time is defined as 10 or more credit hours during a regular semester; part-time is defined as 2 or more credit hours during a regular semester.
No full-time student may take fewer than 10 hours or more than 14 hours per semester, without special permission. No part-time student may take fewer than 2 hours per semester or more than 9 hours per semester, without special permission. In each case, permission may be granted by the Dean or the Dean's delegate [in this instance, the Assistant Dean for International & Non-J.D. Programs or the Director of the LLM Program].
IV. REQUIRED COURSES
The program in both first year day and evening consists entirely of required courses. In both the second and third year day and evening divisions there are only two required courses. Required courses in the first year must be taken with the class section to which the student is assigned by the school. The Dean or the Dean's delegate [in this instance, the Vice Dean] may schedule a student to take a required course at another time under extraordinary circumstances.
Students are not allowed to take required courses at other law schools in summer sessions or otherwise without permission of the Vice Dean. The required courses and the number of credits assigned to each are as follows:
For First year classes starting prior to Fall 2011
Effective For the Entering Fall 2011 (or later) First Year Class
Second, third and fourth year students register themselves for all second year and upper level courses including Constitutional Law.
Prior to graduation each student must complete and receive a passing grade in at least one course of two credits or more that that has been designated by the Vice Dean as satisfying the Law School professional skills requirement. The Vice Dean may designate courses as satisfying the professional skills requirement that provide substantial instruction in professional skills related to the various responsibilities that lawyers are called upon to meet. Courses designated as satisfying the requirement must engage each student in skills performances that are assessed by the instructor.
V. WRITING AND SKILLS REQUIREMENTUPPER CLASS WRITING REQUIREMENT
As a prerequisite to graduation, each student must complete a program of supervised analytic writing subsequent to the first year curriculum. Unless the Vice Dean otherwise permits, a student must complete this requirement no later than the end of the first semester of the student's graduation year.
To satisfy the upper class writing requirement, the student must complete a significant research and writing project under faculty supervision. The student must present a topic proposal for faculty approval, submit an outline and rough draft for faculty comment, and submit a final paper that (1) demonstrates significant research and original analysis; and (2) is well organized, carefully presented, and clearly written. The final paper must be at least 25 double spaced typewritten pages including footnotes or, at the discretion of the supervising faculty member, another single work of equivalent magnitude in an electronic medium. All papers must be submitted no later than the last day of classes for the respective semester.
A student may complete the research and writing project in connection with: (1) a course or seminar that has a paper requirement or paper option and is offered by a member of the full time faculty or by an adjunct professor who has been approved to supervise writing projects for that academic year; or (2) an "Independent Study" with a member of the full time faculty. None of the advanced Legal Writing courses with the exception of the Public Interest Writing Seminar may be used to satisfy the Upper-Class Writing Requirement. A student enrolled in a two credit seminar may, with the faculty member's permission, receive one credit (in addition to the two credits for the seminar) for submitting a paper that the faculty member certifies has (a) satisfied the writing requirement and (b) involved substantially more work than was required to satisfy the course.
Registration. A student must file with the Registrar, within two weeks of the start of semester classes, a Notice of Intent to Satisfy the Research and Writing Requirement that must be signed by the supervising faculty member. Once a student has approval from a professor for the writing requirement, the Registrar's Office will register each student for the writing requirement.
Faculty certification. For writing credit to be granted, the supervising faculty member must certify to the Registrar that the student (1) presented a topic proposal and received comments from the faculty member on interim work, including an outline and rough draft; and (2) submitted a final paper that, in the faculty member's independent judgment, meets the standards of the writing requirement. Upon certification by the supervising faculty member, the Registrar shall record on the student's transcript that the writing requirement has been satisfied.
Submission of course or seminar paper that fails to satisfy the requirement. Should a student's course or seminar paper fail to satisfy the writing requirement, in the judgment of the supervising faculty member, the student shall be ineligible to receive writing credit but may at the discretion of the instructor receive course credit. In such event, the student may, at the discretion of the instructor, continue to work on the research and writing project in the following semester to satisfy the upper class requirement provided that such additional work not be counted toward course credit or toward the grade for the course.
Preparation of paper for publication in a student edited journal. At the discretion of the faculty member supervising the course, seminar, or Independent Study, a student may satisfy the writing requirement by preparing a paper intended for publication in a student law journal and may receive student editorial input concurrently with faculty supervision, provided that all elements of the upper class writing requirement are satisfied. Please note that students may not receive both independent study credit and journal note credit for written work that is substantially the same. Students will have to choose if they want the journal credit or independent study credit(s).
PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REQUIREMENT
The American Bar Association Standard 302 requires that “each student receive substantial instruction in other professional skills generally regarded as necessary for effective and responsible participation in the legal profession”. Prior to graduation each student must complete and receive a passing grade in at least one two credit course that has been designated by the Vice Dean as satisfying the Law School Professional Skills Requirement. The Vice Dean may designate courses as satisfying the professional skills requirement that provide substantial instruction in professional skills related to the various responsiblities that lawyers are called upon to meet. Courses designated as satisfying the requirement must engage each student in skills performances that are assessed by the instructor.
VI. PAPERSRequired papers in a course or seminar must be submitted not later than the last day of classes for the semester. In individual cases of hardship, the deadline may be extended by the professor, but in no event may a paper be submitted later than the last day of examinations for that semester without written approval prior to that date by the Dean or the Dean's delegate [in this instance, the Vice Dean]. Failure to meet the deadline for submission of a paper will constitute failure of the course or seminar by the student.
Failed elective paper courses: A student may pass a paper course that he or she failed by later writing a paper that receives a passing grade. Professors shall have discretion whether to allow such later-submitted papers. Such papers may be submitted when the professor requires, but in any event no later than the end of classes in the following semester. Students' transcripts and GPAs will reflect both the original failure and the passing grade.
VII. ELECTIVE COURSES (Upper Level Students Only)In accordance with the New York State Court of Appeals Rule 520.3(c)(1)(I), a maximum of 30 upper class credit hours in "clinical and like" courses will be credited toward graduation requirements.
A student may enroll in only one advanced Legal Writing course each semester.
Evening students may, if they can so arrange their schedules, take any course that is offered in the day division.
VIII. INDEPENDENT STUDY
J.D. students who have completed their first year of law school may earn up to three credits per semester by independent research under the supervision of a member of the faculty or an adjunct professor who has been approved to supervise writing projects during the academic year. LL.M. students may complete up to three credits of independent research under the supervision of a member of the faculty or an adjunct professor who has been approved to supervise writing projects during the academic year; these credits may be earned in any semester, however LL.M. students are encouraged to pursue these projects only after their first semester of study. Such projects are arranged by consultation between the student and a particular member of the faculty. Students should refer to the Vice Dean's memorandum on Independent Studies.
To register for credit for independent study, the student must file with the Registrar, by the second Friday of the semester, a Request to Register for Independent Study form (available at the Registrar's web page, http://law.fordham.edu/registrar/10508.htm) to engage in independent study that is signed by the supervising faculty member. The notice must contain a summary of the proposed study. To receive independent study credit, the supervising faculty member must certify that the student satisfactorily completed the proposed study and must submit a grade for the research paper.
The norm for independent study is two credits, and the work should be or should be similar to that required to complete a significant research and writing project in accordance with the upper class or LL.M. writing requirement. Under extraordinary circumstances, students may register for a three credit independent study (for J.D.s) or a Master’s Thesis (for LL.M.s) with the approval of the Vice Dean (or, in the case of a Master’s Thesis, with the approval of the Director of International and Non-J.D. Programs). A three credit independent study or Master’s Thesis must involve a more substantial project than would be undertaken to satisfy the upper-class or LL.M. writing requirement. Students should refer to the Vice Dean's memorandum on Independent Studies.
A student enrolled in a two credit seminar may, with the faculty member's permission, receive one credit (in addition to the two credits for the seminar) for submitting a paper that the faculty member certifies has (a) satisfied the writing requirement and (b) involved substantially more work than was required to satisfy the course.
LL.M. students wishing to enroll in independent studies or Master’s Thesis projects must first obtain permission from the Director of International and Non-J.D. Programs.
IX. ADDING AND DROPPING COURSESA student may add or drop a course by using my.fordham.edu. The add/drop period ends at the end of the first week of the semester. During the summer session, courses may be added until the end of late registration.
Students may add and drop courses only if their amended class schedule complies with ABA, NYS Court of Appeals, and AALS rules. Students should consult the Schedule of Classes posted on the Registrar's web page, http://law.fordham.edu/registrar/2750.htm.
First year students may not add or drop courses.
ADD/DROP PROCEDURES FOR CLINICAL COURSES. Students whose names appear on the Registrar's class lists, but who do not attend the first class, are deemed to have dropped the class (or section) unless the student has a medical excuse.* Students who attend the first class, but whose names are not on the Registrar's class list (and are not on the Registrar's class list for any other section) are given a priority with the understanding that they will stay with that section subject to space availability and the possibility that one of the registered students has a medical excuse.
For example: Section 1 of Trial Advocacy. Twelve students registered. On the first night of class, sixteen students show up. Of the sixteen, ten are registered.
The two students who did not show up lose their space in the class. Of the six who did show up, but were not registered, the instructor conducts a lottery to determine which of the six will fill the two available spots.
The instructor must submit a list of the students in attendance (including their place in the lottery) with the Registrar at the conclusion of the class. For instructors who teach in the evening and/or whose class is not at the Law School, the list should be faxed to the Registrar and the Clinical Office by the next school day.
*Note: Students with a documented medical incapacity or a documented medical emergency or death of a close family member who have notified the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs prior to the class meeting will not be deemed dropped from the class. See Article XXI. Rules Governing Examinations, Grades and Honors, Rule 5 (second paragraph).
X. OVERSUBSCRIBED COURSESA wait-list will be in place for closed Drafting, Research, Trial Advocacy, Fundamental Lawyering Skills, and Introduction to the Deal courses. Students are responsible for checking the status of courses and registering themselves for any available seats. If a course is closed, the courses will reopen for registration on My.Fordham as seats become available. Once the open seats are filled, the course will close again, unless additional seats open up. If you are interested in registering for a closed course, it is recommended that you check its status regularly, especially during the first week of classes. In our experience, many seats open up near the end of the process.
DESIGNATED WAIT-LIST COURSES
If a DRAFTING, RESEARCH, TRIAL ADVOCACY, FUNDAMENTAL LAWYERING SKILLS. OR INTRODUCTION TO THE DEAL course(s) becomes closed, you may place your name on a wait list. Wait lists can be accessed from the Registrar's web page at http://law.fordham.edu/registrar/registrar.htm. The wait lists are managed by the Registrar's Office only and any other list such as one kept by the professor will not be used. Do not approach a professor to attempt to get into a wait listed class. The faculty cannot override the wait list process.
Selection from a wait list will be based on class priority, but within each class will be done randomly, not "first come, first serve". The wait-list process will be ongoing until two weeks prior to the start of the semester. As spots become available, the Registrar's office will notify students by Fordham e-mail if they have been selected for a seat.
Class priority for designated wait-list courses is as follows:
TO PLACE YOUR NAME ON A WAIT LIST FOR DRAFTING, RESEARCH, TRIAL ADVOCACY, OR INTRODUCTION TO THE DEAL COURSES:
If a spot becomes available, you will be notified by e mail, using your Fordham e-mail address only. You will have 48 hours from the time of notification to inform the Registrar's Office that you will take the spot. To verify if you have been added to a course, use My.fordham.edu to view your class schedule.
Termination of the Wait List for Drafting, Research, Trial Advocacy, and Introduction to the Deal courses. Two weeks prior to the start of the semester the wait-list procedure for these courses will terminate, unless the Registrar posts a different date. After that date, as seats become available in closed Drafting, Research, Trial Advocacy, and Introduction to the Deal courses, the courses will be reopen for registration on My.fordham.edu as they are for all other courses. Students will register themselves for any open seats once the wait-list ends.
Restrictions on Dropping Advanced Writing/Research Classes
Please be advised that Advanced Writing or Research classes cannot be dropped or added after two weeks prior to the start of the semester, without the approval of the Vice Dean. Please review the policy for adding and dropping any writing or research classes. Once open seats are filled, the courses will close again, unless additional seats open up. Once the wait list terminates, students will be responsible for checking the status of courses and registering themselves for any available seats. If you are interested in registering for a closed course, it is recommended that you check its status regularly, especially during the first week of classes. In our experience, many seats open up near the end of the process.
XI. ATTENDANCEUnder the Rules of the American Bar Association, the New York State Court of Appeals, and other state high courts governing admission to the bar, a student must be in "regular attendance." Furthermore, it is clear that work in the Law School cannot be satisfactorily carried on by students who are irregular in attendance.
Students are advised that a professor may take into account classroom attendance in determining the course grade. In addition, if a professor determines that a student's absences are excessive, the professor may, after consultation with the Vice Dean and the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs, deny the student permission to sit for the final examination or give a failing grade.
Special conditions, including withdrawal from all courses for excessive absences from two or more courses, may be imposed in other cases that the Vice Dean and the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs regard as serious.
XII. EMPLOYMENTA student may not be employed for more than 20 hours per week in any semester in which the student is enrolled in more than 12 class hours. Full time students must sign a statement to this effect every time they register. Students who violate this regulation are subject to disciplinary action.
XIII. FEDERAL STUDENT AIDU.S. citizens, permanent residents, and certain eligible non-citizens may apply for federal student aid, so long as they carry at least a part-time or half-time academic workload, equivalent to half the workload of a full-time student.
Juris Doctor (J.D.) Degree
Master of Laws (LL.M.) Degree
XIV. LEAVES OF ABSENCEIn extraordinary circumstances a leave of absence of up to 18 months may be granted by the Dean or the Dean's delegate. [Currently, the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs is the individual designated to review requests for a leave of absence.] If such a leave is granted, the Dean or the Dean's delegate shall specify and ascertain satisfaction of the condition under which the student will be readmitted.
A student who has been granted a leave of absence must, as a condition of reenrollment, notify the Registrar of his or her intention to reenroll at least sixteen (16) weeks before the start of the semester for which he or she intends to enroll. Additionally, if the returning student intends to enroll in first year courses upon his or her return, he or she must also notify the Assistant Dean of Admissions at least sixteen (16) weeks before the start of the semester for which he or she intends to enroll.
The NY Court of Appeals requires that the course of study for the J.D. degree be completed no later than 60 months after a student has commenced law study at the law school or a law school from which the school has accepted transfer credit.
Under no circumstance will a student who has not successfully completed at least one full semester of study at Fordham Law School be granted a leave of absence. Students who withdraw from the Law School prior to completing their first semester and who wish to reenroll must file a new application for admission with the Office of Admissions, and follow normal application procedures.
Refunds for a student who is granted a leave of absence are as follows:
End of the 1st week of classes of the semester 100%
XV. WITHDRAWAL FROM SCHOOLA) Prior to completing one full semester of study at Fordham Law School
Students who withdraw from the Law School prior to completing their first semester may do so only be delivering a written notice [to the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs] on or before the last day of classes of the fall semester. If, after withdrawing from the Law School the student wishes to reenroll, he or she must file a new application for admissions with the Office of Admissions and follow normal application procedures.
B) After completing one full semester of study at Fordham Law School
Students who withdraw from the Law School after completing at least one semester of study may withdraw from school only by delivering a written notice [to the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs] on or before the last day of class in any semester. If a student who has withdrawn wishes to reenroll, he or she must file a request for readmission with the Assistant Dean for Admissions and the Registrar at least sixteen (16) weeks before the start of the semester for which he or she seeks readmittance, at which time the Admissions Committee will then consider the request.
A student who withdraws from the Law School after completing his or her first semester of the first year of law school will receive credit for all completed semesterized courses.
If an upper class student withdraws after completing the first semester of a year and is later re admitted, he or she may:
Refunds for a student who withdraws are as follows:
End of the 1st week of classes of the semester 100%
XVI. FORDHAM LAW STUDENTS VISITING AT OTHER LAW SCHOOLSAll students considering taking courses at another law school must obtain permission from the Registrar. Students seeking to enroll in ABA-approved international programs during the fall and/or spring semesters must obtain permission from the Assistant Dean for International and Non-JD Programs.
No credit will be given for any required Fordham course taken at another law school, unless the student receives permission from the Vice Dean. To receive credit for other courses the student must receive at least a grade of "C" or its equivalent under the grading system of the school at which the course was taken. Successful completion of the course will be shown on the student's transcript by reflecting the school's name and the credit hours received and will not be included in the computation of the student's average.
Any course for which the student receives the grade of "C " or lower or its equivalent under the grading system of the school at which the course is taken will be recorded on the student's transcript by reflecting the school's name and no credit hours will be recorded and the lack of credit hours will not be included in the computation of the student's average.
XVII. TRANSFER FROM ONE DIVISION TO ANOTHERFordham University School of Law students may transfer from one division to another by making a formal application to the Registrar. Transferring divisions will alter the anticipated graduation date.
Transferring to the day division after first year evening all credits earned through summer courses at Fordham:
Fordham Law evening division students who intend to transfer to the day division immediately following the first year must submit an Application to Transfer Divisions form (PDF) in the Registrar's Office no later than May 1. Application forms are available in the Registrar's Office or may be downloaded at http://law.fordham.edu/registrar.htm. Students must also complete Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law and Legislation/Regulation no later than the end of their second year.
Tuition. Fordham students enrolled in summer courses at Fordham for the purpose of obtaining residence credit in order to transfer from the part time to the full time program prior to second year shall pay residency tuition that will equal the difference between the full time program tuition and the parttime program tuition for the academic year ending the June prior to attendance at the summer school in which they earn residence credit. This residency fee will be charged in lieu of summer tuition or externship administrative fees.
Transferring to the day division other situations:
Fordham Law evening division students who intend to transfer to the day division must submit an Application to Transfer Divisions form (PDF) in the Registrar's Office no later than May 1st for the fall semester or December 1st for the spring semester. Application forms are available in the Registrar's Office or may be downloaded at http://law.fordham.edu/registrar.htm. Prior to the end of the second year of the JD program, all rising students MUST register for Civil Procedure, Legislation/Regulation, and Constitutional Law if any of these courses have not been previously completed.
Tuition. Students transferring from the part time evening division to the full time day division shall pay residency tuition equal to the difference between the full time and the part time tuition for the year(s) in which they were part time students. The amount of the residency tuition payment shall be reduced by an offset equal to the actual cost of the credits earned at Fordham in order to obtain residence credit. With respect to credits earned elsewhere in order to obtain residence credit, the amount of the tuition payment shall also be reduced by treating those credits as if they had been earned at Fordham.
XVIII. EARLY GRADUATIONEarly Graduation is permitted from either a full time or part time program if the requisite number of full time or part time semesters is met. This can be accomplished by attendance at two full time or part time summer semesters.
XIX. SUMMER SCHOOLTo receive credit for summer school courses taken at a school other than Fordham, the student must obtain permission from the Registrar before the courses are taken. Furthermore, the student must receive at least a grade of "C" or its equivalent under the grading system of the school at which the course was taken. Successful completion of the course will be shown on the student's transcript by reflecting the school's name and the credit hours received but will not be included in the computation of the student's average. Any course for which the student receives a grade of "C " or lower or its equivalent under the grading system of the school at which the course was taken will be recorded on the student's transcript by reflecting the school's name and no credit hours will be recorded and the lack of credit hours will not be included in the computation of the student's average.
XX. JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMSJ.D./M.A. Program. The School of Law and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences offer a combined program of studies in law and graduate level International Political Economy and Development. The program is open to both full and part time students.
Full time students complete the requirements for the J.D. degree in five semesters at the Law School and the requirements for the M.A. degree in two semesters at the graduate school, thereby saving two semesters' worth of work if each degree were pursued separately.
Part time students complete the requirements for the J.D. degree in seven semesters and the requirements for the M.A. degree in three semesters and one or two sessions during a summer. Hence, the program enables a part time student to complete the requirements for both degrees in as few as ten semesters, with one or two sessions during a summer between a Spring and Fall semester, instead of the normal 11 semesters and sessions during two summers.
Students must apply to and be admitted to each school on an independent basis, although such admission need not occur simultaneously. Law students may apply to the Graduate School at any time while in residence at the Law School and it is recommended that they complete their course of studies at the Law School before beginning study as the Graduate School. However, a student in residence at the Law School may take one or more courses at the Graduate School, as long as the total number of classroom hours per week does not exceed the number permitted by Law School regulations.
Admission to and continuation in the program is conditional upon the student's completion of both the law and graduate school requirements with an acceptable quality point average. Students who fall below the minimum scholastic requirements for either school at any time during their studies may be academically dismissed from that school and dropped from the dual program.
The Law School will charge tuition at the Law School rate for all semesters in which a student is in residence at the Law School. Students may earn up to 12 of the 83 credits needed for the J.D. by taking courses related to legal training at the Graduate School that do not duplicate Law School courses. They may earn up to 12 credits of the 36 credits required for the M.A. by taking courses at the Law School that are related to international relations. For further information and advisement regarding the IPED program, students may contact Professor Thomas Lee (THLEE@law.fordham.edu).
J.D./M.B.A. Program. The School of Law and the Graduate School of Business Administration at Fordham University have established a combined program of studies in law and graduate level business administration. The program is designed to provide both full and part time students with an opportunity to study law and business administration in a course of study comprising the two fields.
The J.D./M.B.A. Program enables a full time student to complete the requirements for the J.D. degree in five semesters at the Law School, while enabling a part time student to complete his or her legal study in seven semesters. Hence, the program enables a full time student to complete the requirements for both degrees in as little as three and a half calendar years rather than the five it might take were each degree pursued separately. It enables a part time student to complete the requirements of both degrees in as little as six and a half years rather than the seven and a half it might take were each degree pursued separately.
Students must apply to and be admitted to each school on an independent basis. However, such admission need not occur simultaneously. Once a student has been admitted to either of the two schools, the candidate may apply to the other school, but, in order to get the full advantage of the program, a student must be admitted to the Law School first as the Law School cannot credit toward the J.D. degree courses taken at the Graduate School of Business Administration (GSBA) before the student matriculated at the Law School.
A law student may apply to GSBA at any time while in residence at the Law School. The student will attend GSBA after finishing the Law School year in which he or she applies to GSBA, complete the course of study there, and return to the Law School, if necessary, to complete his or her legal study.
The program contemplates sequential rather than simultaneous study at the two schools. However, a student in residence at the Law School may take one or more courses at GSBA, as long as the total number of classroom hours per week does not exceed the number permitted by Law School regulations.
The Law School will allow up to 12 credits for Graduate Business courses in taxation, finance, and accounting that do not duplicate Law School courses toward its 83 credit degree. The Law School will occasionally allow credit for a business economics course depending upon its content.
However, the Law School will allow only two credits for a course that meets two hours a week per trimester at GSBA, whereas GSBA gives three credits. The Business School will allow a maximum of 12 credits for courses taken at the Law School toward the normal 60 credit M.B.A. The joint degree will be awarded upon successful completion of the course requirements at both schools.
A student may withdraw from the program and pursue either the M.B.A. or J.D. degree with full credit toward that degree for all work completed in that school. Admission to and continuation in the joint program is conditional upon the student's completion of both the law and business requirements with an acceptable quality point average. Students who fall below the minimum scholastic requirements for either school at any time during their studies may be academically dismissed from that school and dropped from the joint program.
The Law School will charge tuition at the Law School rate for all semesters in which a student is in residence at the Law School.
Graduate School of Business Administration
J.D./M.B.A. Program. The School of Law and the Graduate School of Business have established a combined program of study in law and graduate level social work, allowing students to complete requirements for the J.D. and M.B.A. in a shorter period of time than if each degree were pursued separately. A student must first enroll in the School of Law, as it cannot credit towards the J.D. degree courses taken at the Graduate School of Business before the student matriculated. For more information about the dual degree program please click here and applicants should contact Professor Sean Griffith (SGRIFFITH@law.fordham.edu) at the School of Law and Ilze Frierson (FRIERSON@fordham.edu) at the Graduate School of Business.
Graduate School of Social Service
J.D./M.S.W. Program. The School of Law and the Graduate School of Social Service have established a combined program of study in law and graduate level social work, allowing students to complete requirements for the J.D. and M.S.W. in a shorter period of time than if each degree were pursued separately. Eligibility for the program, which is approved by the New York State Department of Education, requires admission to both the School of Law and the Graduate School of Social Service.
A student must first enroll in the School of Law, as it cannot credit towards the J.D. degree courses taken at the Graduate School of Social Service before the student matriculated. For more information about the dual degree program please click here and applicants should contact Professor Clare Huntington (CHUNTINGTON@law.fordham.edu) at the School of Law and Dr. Lyn Slater (firstname.lastname@example.org) at the Graduate School of Social Service.
XXI. DISCIPLINEThe continuance upon the rolls and the graduation of each student, the awarding of academic credits, and the granting of any certification or degree are strictly subject to the disciplinary powers of the University. The University reserves the right in its discretion at any time to cancel a student's registration, or to refuse to award academic credits, or deny a certification or degree.
The disciplinary authority of the University is vested in the President of the University in such cases as he deems proper, and, subject to the reserved powers of the President, in the deans or other officers upon whom jurisdiction may be from time to time conferred.
All students in the School of Law are governed by the applicable provisions of both the University Code of conduct and the Code of Academic Responsibility adopted by the Faculty, copies of which are on file in the library.
XXII. RECORDING CLASSESStudents are not permitted to tape or record lectures. Exceptions may be made with permission of the professor. When a professor does grant such permission, students are responsible for providing their own recorders and tape as well as making their own arrangements for the taping of the class.
XXIII. RULES GOVERNING EXAMINATIONS, GRADES, & HONORS
Rule 1.As required by the Rules of the New York Court of Appeals, "All study shall be evaluated by authentic written examination, except where such examination is inappropriate, such as in seminar and practice court courses or those courses which are principally concerned with legal writing, and research."
Rule 2.Written examinations are essential parts of examination courses and are held after the end of classes at the end of every semester in all subjects completed therein, except courses where grades are determined entirely by papers or clinical work. Mid semester examinations or mid year examinations in full year courses may be scheduled at the discretion of the professor. Classroom work, in so far as practical and at the discretion of the professor, may also be considered in determining final grades. Examinations for both divisions are usually held on weekdays during the regular examination period. Please note: examinations given on weekdays in evening division courses generally begin at 5:30p.m.
Rule 3.Examinations for all classes will begin promptly at the hour announced in the examination schedule posted prior to the examination period of each semester. No student will be permitted to enter the examination room after the first hour has passed nor will any student be permitted to conclude the exam and leave the room during the first hour of the examination, unless the student is accompanied by a proctor.
Rule 4.Students must present themselves for examination at the scheduled time except in courses where the student's grades will be determined entirely by papers or clinical work, unless permission to be excused is granted as provided in these rules. Omission to do so will constitute failure of such examination by the student.
Rule 5.The Dean or the Dean's delegate may grant permission to be excused from a regularly scheduled examination. The Registrar is the individual delegated to grant permission to students to be excused from a regularly scheduled exam due to exam conflicts or religious observance. Examination Conflict Form.
For all other reasons allowed by this Rule, the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs is the individual delegated to grant permission to students to be excused from a regularly scheduled exam. Requests to defer exams will be denied if for:
Requests for permission to be excused from a regularly scheduled exam may be granted for extraordinary causes. The following are reasons that will be considered in granting relief:
1. an absolute examination conflict,
Requests for an exam deferral must be in writing and requires satisfactory documentation of the reasons. Students should be prepared to provide complete documentation, which is subject to verification and approval. If your file shows that you have previously deferred one or more examinations for reasons other than exam conflicts, another deferral examination will be granted in only the most extraordinary circumstances.
All rescheduled exam are rescheduled after the scheduled exam date. An exam conflict exists when you have two scheduled final examinations to start within 16 hours of each other (take-home exams do NOT constitute a conflict). All requests to reschedule an exam due to a conflict must be e-mailed to ExamInformation@law.fordham.edu 3 weeks after the start of the semester. Please do NOT schedule any travel arrangements until the END of the exam period. Students should consult “RULES GOVERNING EXAMINATIONS, GRADES, AND HONORS” in the Academic Regulations before submitting the Examination Conflict Form. Exam conflicts will not be negotiated by the Registrar's Office after 3 weeks after the start of the semester.
Rule 6.Any student with an absolute examination conflict may elect to take the two conflicting exams on the same day if, before the end of the seventh week of class, he or she properly notifies the Registrar of his or her election to do so. These examinations will be scheduled so that there is a short interval between the end of the first examination and the beginning of the second examination.
Those who have properly notified the Registrar that they, for religious reasons, cannot take examinations when scheduled will be required to take these examinations earlier on the day scheduled or later, in so far as practical.
Any student who did not take an examination during the examination period and who is eligible to take it during the make-up period is required to make up the examination on a scheduled date during the examination make up period. The make up examination period will be determined after the end of the regularly scheduled examination period.
Rule 7.Any student who misses an examination and did not comply with Rule 5 above must apply in writing to the Faculty Re examination Committee for permission to make up the examination. The petition must be in writing and must be filed with the Registrar. The times and conditions of the make up examination, if allowed, will be within the absolute discretion of the committee. If the omitted examination was given in the spring semester or in summer school, the application to make up the examination must be made within 10 days of the conclusion of that examination period; if the omitted examination was given in the fall semester, the application must be made prior to the third day of class of the spring semester.
Rule 8.A student who, although eligible to take a make up examination, fails to do so will be deemed to have failed the examination. A student may apply in writing to the Faculty Re examination Committee for removal of the failure and for permission to make up the examination during the next regularly scheduled examination period during which an examination in that subject is given. The application must be filed with the Registrar and must be made within 10 days of the missed make up examination. The Committee will grant the application only upon a showing of extraordinary circumstances. If the Committee grants the application the student will be allowed to continue conditionally in the school, subject to achieving a true weighted average of at least a 2.0 for the academic year in which the omitted examination was regularly scheduled.
Rule 9.Except for pass/fail courses, the standing of students will be indicated by the following letter grades. For the purposes of calculating weighted averages, numerical equivalents will be used for the letter grades as follows:
The minimum grade that will be recorded in a course is "F". The grade of "D" constitutes a passing mark in a subject. To continue in good scholastic standing, however, a student must maintain a true weighted average of at least 2.0 in every academic year. In computing a true weighted average, hours in a pass/fail course that was passed will be disregarded. If such a course was failed, an "F" will be entered on the student's transcript and a 0.0 will be used in computing the student's true weighted average. For the purposes of this rule, an academic year shall begin with the summer term, provided that where a summer term is the student's final term in law school, it will be considered part of the academic year that commenced the preceding summer.
For the purposes of determining whether a student is entitled to Honors, the student's true weighted average will be used.
LL.M. Grading Policy
Curve for Examination-Only and Drafting Courses
LL.M. students shall be graded on a separate curve from JD students. This curve is mandatory for examination-only and drafting courses in which 10 or more LL.M./exchange students are enrolled.
In situations in which the curve is not mandatory, professors should differentiate performance among LL.M./Exchange students rather than giving them all grades of P (Pass) or H (Honors). Accordingly, the curve is recommended for: (1) all examination-only or drafting courses in which fewer than 10 LLM students are enrolled; (2) all courses in which students may choose an examination or a paper option; and (3) LL.M. independent study or thesis projects.
The curve to be applied is as follows:
LL.M. Student Grading in Legal Writing and Introduction to U.S. Legal System
LL.M. students enrolled in LL.M. Legal Writing and Research and in Introduction to the U.S. Legal System shall be evaluated using the following curve:
Students Admitted Fall 2011 and Afterwards
Students Admitted Prior to Fall 2011
Grades received in LL.M. Legal Writing and Research and Introduction to the U.S. Legal System will not be factored into Honors determinations.
Magna Cum Laude
Students who complete a paper that satisfies the LL.M. Writing Requirement and who rank in the top 10% of the graduating class will be eligible to receive magna cum laude honors.
Students need not complete the LL.M. Writing Requirement in order to be considered for cum laude honors. Additionally, all students in the top 25% of the graduating class who did not receive magna cum laude honors will receive cum laude honors, including students in the top 10% who did not complete the LL.M. Writing Requirement.
J.D. Grading Curve - By a resolution adopted in May, 2013, the faculty made the percentage distribution of grades listed below mandatory for all first year courses (with the exception of Legal Writing) and Constitutional Law class sections The percentage distribution of grades for these and first year courses will be strictly enforced.
J.D. Academic Honors
Rule 10.No student who fails to attain the required year average of 2.0 will be permitted to advance into the next year. An average of 2.0 in the final academic year and overall is required to graduate. Such a student may, however, seek permission to repeat the failed year by filling a Petition for Permission to Repeat with the Dean of Admissions and by appearing personally before the Readmission Committee at its stated sittings, usually in late July. The Readmission Committee may consider any information it considers relevant, including without limitation not only the applicant's law school record but also information revealed in his or her law school application file. Permission to repeat is granted only under extraordinary circumstances, such as where the applicant has shown a reason for his or her failure, which reason is not likely to recur. The transcript of any student who is readmitted will contain all grades received in the failed year.
Rule 11.Failed courses aggregating in credit value more than one quarter of the credits taken by a student in any academic year will constitute a failed year irrespective of the weighted average obtained by the student. In such case, the student will not be permitted to continue in the school or to graduate. For purposes of this rule any failed course that is retaken will be treated as if it had not been retaken. The student may seek readmission pursuant to Rule 10.
Rule 12.A student who fails a required course must retake that course. The student must retake the course, if feasible, during the next semester in which it is offered in the class division in which the student is registered, and must pass the examination in it. A student who fails an elective course, other than a paper course (see Article V of the Academic Regulations) may, if the course is offered again, retake that course. Transcripts will reflect both the original failure and, where applicable, the new grade. The numerical equivalent of the new grade will be averaged with the failure 0.00 for cumulative grade point average purposes.
A student who, although not required to repeat the year, repeats and passes a course in which an examination was failed, or, in the case of a failed elective paper course, who submits a paper that earns a "pass," will receive credit for that course in the semester in which it was first taken. No credit for such a course will be counted toward residence credit in the semester in which the course was re taken.
Rule 13.No day division student will be permitted to enter the third year class with any failed first year course outstanding against him or her; no evening division student will be permitted to enter the fourth year class with any failed first year course or failed second year required course outstanding against him or her.
Rule 14.A faculty member may change a grade if an error in mathematics or computation has been made.
Special Note: Incompletes (INC) or No Grades (NGR) remaining on a student's record at the completion of the semester following the course in question will be converted to "Fs".
XXIV. RULES GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATION OF EXAMINATIONSStudents are responsible for knowing and complying with the following rules governing the administration of examinations:
Rule 1.Students must carry their Law School identification cards at all times during the examination period and must present them upon demand by any proctor, faculty member, or security guard. A student who has lost his or her identification card should request a temporary one from the Registrar.
Rule 2.Students may not bring any unauthorized material into the examination room. Except for materials expressly authorized by the Professor, desks or tables should be clear of any materials. Candy and beverages in secure containers will be allowed on your desk. Students who wish to keep handbags near their person during an examination may do so as long as they are kept in plain view. However, no materials may be removed from the handbag.
If a proctor or professor determines that a violation of this rule has occurred, the unauthorized materials will be taken from the student. The professor or proctor shall report this violation to the Registrar.
Rule 3.Students shall sit in alternate seats.
Rule 4.All blue books to be submitted for grading should be numbered in the following manner: 1 of 2, 2 of 2, etc. Blue books used as scrap should not be numbered.
Rule 5.Students should not begin an examination until a proctor so instructs.
Rule 6.Students may not converse or exchange material during an examination.
Rule 7.Whenever a student leaves an examination room, he or she must sign out. If a student subsequently returns to the examination room, he or she must sign in and note the return time on the form provided by the proctor.
Rule 8.Students may not leave the floor where their examination is taking place unless they have completed the examination. A student seen leaving or returning to the floor where he or she is currently taking an examination will not be readmitted to that floor without first presenting an identification card to the hall proctor. The proctor will submit a report of this incident to the Registrar.
Rule 9.Any student who observes cheating shall report the incident, as soon as practicable, to a proctor or the Registrar. A student reporting the cheating shall identify the student or students involved, by name if known. Where the name of the student or students engaged in cheating is unknown, the student who has observed cheating should provide a physical description of the student or students involved and indicate the row and seat where these individuals sat during the examination.
Vice-Dean Sheila Foster Memo on Academic Integrity
Rule 10.When a student completes an examination prior to the end of the allotted time, he or she should return all materials to the proctor assigned to the front desk and then sign out.
Rule 11.At the end of the time allotted for an examination, proctors will instruct all students to stop writing. EVERY STUDENT MUST PUT HIS OR HER PEN OR PENCIL DOWN IMMEDIATELY OR STOP TYPING, CLOSE ALL BLUE BOOKS AND REMAIN SEATED UNTIL THE PROCTOR CALLS STUDENTS TO COME FORWARD, BY ROW, TO SUBMIT THEIR EXAMINATION AND SIGN OUT.
Rule 12.When signing out at the end of an examination, students must:
Rule 13.The Faculty adopted the following rules for the administration of take home examinations at its April 10, 2001 meeting:
Students must be familiar with the different types of scheduled (in-class) exams:
Please note: NO electronic devices (phones, ipads, electronic dictionaries, or tablets) are permitted during the exam.
XXV. REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTSCompliance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and University Policy requires that all requests for release of transcripts be made in writing by the student. Students or alumni may request copies of their transcripts by writing to the
Office of the Registrar
There will be no charge for providing a Fordham University School of Law transcript. While normal processing will be free of charge, there will be a special services fee of $25.00 for processing that requires expedited delivery to the requestor or overnight dispatch to the recipient. Requests for transcripts (official and unofficial) will be processed in the order in which they are received. Transcripts will be processed within seven (7) working days. Official transcripts will not be released directly to students or their surrogates.
The Registrar's Office will also honor students' requests for expedited transcript service. Official transcripts will be forwarded for students within 24 hours of the request. Unofficial transcripts may be picked up at the Registrar's Office within 24 hours. Friday requests will be ready to be picked up the following Monday. During peak periods in the Registrar's Office (such as registration, ADD/DROP, and graduation), 24 hour expedited service is not guaranteed. In accordance with the University Registrar's policy, requests for expedited transcripts will require an additional $25.00 processing fee. Specific deadlines should be mentioned, and checks accompanying requests should be payable to Fordham Law School.